Historical Development of the Council on Chiropractic Education
The importance of quality education was recognized early in the chiropractic profession. Voluntary efforts to improve chiropractic education were undertaken as early as 1935 when the National Chiropractic Association (NCA) created a Committee on Educational Standards (CES).
During the years between 1935 and 1940, various national chiropractic associations such as the NCA; the Chiropractic Health Bureau (CHB); and the Council on State Chiropractic Examining Boards (CSCEB) supported the improvement of chiropractic education with both funds and human power. Years later the NCA became the American Chiropractic Association (ACA) and the Chiropractic Health Bureau became the International Chiropractors Association (ICA).
In 1938 the CES and CSCEB merged into a new CES. Under the direction of this committee the first institution self-study questionnaire was sent to all 37 chiropractic institutions actively engaged in chiropractic education in the United States.
In 1939 the CES completed work on educational criteria, which were presented for approval of the chiropractic institutions. Funds were subsequently appropriated by the NCA to employ an inspector to visit the applicant institutions and evaluate their programs against their self-studies and the educational criteria. In 1941 the CES issued its first list of institutions with status; the list contained twelve provisionally approved institutions.
In 1947 institutional representatives and members of the CES formed the Council on Education. On August 4, 1947, this Council received the approval and support of the House of Delegates of the NCA.
In 1952 the Council on Education made initial contact with the United States Office of Education (later to become the United States Department of Education [USDE]) with an official application for recognition being filed in 1959.
From 1941 to 1961 the Council continued to strengthen chiropractic education. Many of the weaker institutions were merged with other institutions to create stronger academic programs. A number of the grossly substandard institutions were closed. By 1961, the number of institutions had been reduced to ten.
In 1964 the NCA merged with other groups to form the ACA, which continued to support the Council on Education.
Suggestions for strengthening academics and procedures were received and implemented, and in 1969 an unofficial filing of materials with the USDE resulted in further suggestions for change.
In 1971 the Council on Chiropractic Education (CCE) was incorporated as an autonomous national organization and continues to function as such.
On August 16, 1972, CCE filed a formal application and on August 26, 1974, the U.S. Commissioner of Education, Department of Health, Education and Welfare first awarded the Accrediting Commission of the CCE its recognition on the list of Nationally Recognized Accrediting Agencies and Associations for a period of one (1) year.
CCE was accepted as a member of the Council of Specialized Accrediting Agencies in 1975. CCE continues membership with the now, Association of Specialized and Professional Accreditors (ASPA).
The U.S. Commissioner of Education, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, extended the recognition of the Accrediting Commission of the CCE on December 11, 1975, for a period of three years.
On July 1, 1976, the New York State Education Department began accepting the status decisions of the CCE Commission on Accreditation (COA), thus discontinuing its policy of independent evaluation of chiropractic institutions outside the state of New York.
On October 13, 1976, the CCE was granted initial recognition by the Council on Postsecondary Accreditation (COPA) for a period of five years for the accreditation of educational programs leading to the Doctor of Chiropractic degree.
The U. S. Commissioner on Education, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, granted continued recognition to the CCE Commission on Accreditation on June 21, 1979, for a period of three years.
In July 1981, CCE initiated an effort to identify those clinical competencies requisite to entrance into the chiropractic profession. An ad hoc task force was appointed consisting of members representing CCE member Doctor of Chiropractic Programs (DCPs), as well as professional and regulatory organizations. The work of the task force was completed and the clinical competencies were adopted by the CCE in 1984.
CCE announced the establishment of reciprocal agreements with the Council on Chiropractic Education Canada (CCEC) on March 26, 1982 bilaterally recognizing accreditation decisions rendered respectively by CCE and CCEC.
CCE received continued recognition by COPA on April 14, 1982, for a period of five (5) years.
On November 18, 1982 the U. S. Commissioner on Education continued recognition of the CCE Commission on Accreditation for a period of four (4) years.
CCE announced the establishment of reciprocal agreements with the Australian CCE (ACCE) on February 2, 1986 bilaterally recognizing accreditation decisions rendered respectively by CCE and ACCE.
In 1986-87 the CCE underwent a major review and revision of the Educational Standards for Chiropractic Institutions (Standards), subsequently renaming the document as Standards for Chiropractic Programs/institutions (Standards). A random sample of more than 500 persons from CCE's various publics were asked to critique the Standards.
CCE received continued recognition by COPA on April 17, 1987, for a period of five years.
On September 28, 1987 the U. S. Department of Education continued the recognition of the Commission on Accreditation of the CCE for a period of two years and later, on July 13, 1989 extended the recognition for two additional years.
In 1987-89 the CCE continued the Standards review process in response to impending substantive changes in postsecondary education and accreditation recognition requirements. The USDE and the COPA revised their provisions and procedures governing recognition of accrediting bodies to require that program review assess outcomes as well as resources.
In 1990, the CCE approved major revision of its Standards; the revision focused on the development of an accreditation program that assesses chiropractic institutional effectiveness and outcomes.
On January 28, 1992 the Commission on Accreditation of the CCE was granted continued recognition by COPA for a five-year period.
On August 18, 1992, the Commission on Accreditation of the CCE was awarded continued recognition by the U.S. Department of Education for a period of five (5) years.
CCE announced the establishment of reciprocal agreements with the European Council on Chiropractic Education (ECCE) on January 23, 1993 bilaterally recognizing accreditation decisions rendered respectively by CCE and ECCE.
A task force was appointed in 1994 for the purpose of revising the clinical competencies.
In 1995, CCE approved major revisions of its Standards in order to maintain compliance with the provisions added to the Higher Education Act of 1965 (HEA) by the Higher Education Amendments of 1992, and the Higher Education Technical Amendments of 1993.
In 1996, the CCE approved major revisions of the Clinical Competency Document and established Clinical Competencies as a section of the Standards.
Since 1996, CCE has continued to take seriously its commitment to ensure that the Standards for the accreditation of DCPs are adequate and effective measures for assessment of quality, and relevant to the requirements and expectations of the chiropractic profession and to the protection of the public. Specific revisions of the Standards have taken place from time to time, particularly with regard to requirements for admission to the programs and clinical aspects of the curriculum. In this regard, the CCE Board of Directors has approved a specific and systematic program for review of the Standards and the accreditation process. This program insures regular and thorough reconsideration and improvements where necessary.
On March 21, 1997 the Commission on Accreditation of the CCE was granted continued recognition by the Commission on Recognition of Postsecondary Education (CORPA), which replaced COPA, for a five-year period.
On August 1, 1997 the Commission on Accreditation of the CCE was awarded continued recognition by the U. S. Department of Education for a period of four (4) years.
In January 1999, the CCE Board of Directors voted to change the organizational structure and makeup of the components of CCE: the Board of Directors composed of thirteen individuals, seven from the accredited chiropractic programs/institutions, four practicing chiropractors from the field and two individuals from the general public. The Board of Directors establishes the Standards, elects the members of the COA, and conducts the general business of CCE through its Executive Committee and the Executive Director.
The COA became a separate body composed of eleven individuals, five from the accredited chiropractic programs/institutions, four practicing chiropractors from the field and two individuals from the general public. The COA implements the CCE Standards and renders decisions pertaining to the accreditation of programs/institutions.
Initially named the CCE Council, The CCE Corporation was given responsibility for election of the Board of Directors and approval of the CCE Bylaws. This body was composed of representatives from each of the accredited programs.
A task force was formed for the purpose of reviewing the clinical competencies and worked from 1999-2000. The resulting competencies more closely reflected changes that had occurred in chiropractic education since they were first implemented and were more consistent with the primary care role of the Doctor of Chiropractic.
In the year 2000, the CCE Board of Directors conducted an extensive review of proposed revisions of the Standards, involving participation by all entities in CCE and interested outside parties. Major revisions of the Standards resulted from this activity.
In January 2001, the CCE Board of Directors supported the formation of the Councils on Chiropractic Education International (CCEI). After CCEI developed mutual recognition and endorsement policies among the chiropractic accrediting agencies worldwide, the CCE Board of Directors rescinded its previously-established reciprocal agreements.
On December 17, 2001 the CCE Commission on Accreditation was granted continued recognition by the U. S. Secretary of Education, for a period of five (5) years.
In 2002, the CCE Commission on Accreditation instituted processes to enhance consistency in application of requirements and in reporting on site team visits, and revised the COA Manual that included examples illustrating compliance with the CCE Standards, to assist programs in understanding CCE accreditation requirements.
In January 2005, the Board of Directors (BOD) established “membership” into the structure of CCE, with “members” being representatives of the accredited DCPs, in accordance with the CCE Articles of Incorporation. As a provision of this change, the member programs elected the majority of the BOD and voted, along with the BOD, on amendments to the Articles of Incorporation.
On February 2, 2005 CCE received continued recognition by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA), which replaced CORPA, with a required interim five-year report and a full recognition review in ten years.
In July 2005, the CCE Board of Directors along with several stake-holders from the chiropractic profession conducted a strategic planning workshop resulting in the establishment of important initiatives to 1. Improve Accreditation Standards, 2. Enhance Public Relations Effort, 3. Clarify CCE’s Role in International Chiropractic, 4. Expand Dialogue with Key Stakeholders Regarding Best Practices in Chiropractic, 5. Develop and Implement Strategies to Increase Ethical Practice and Conduct; and 6. Provide Accreditation Services for Chiropractic Post Doctorate Certification.
In January 2006, the CCE Board of Directors changed the normal revision of the CCE Standards from a one-year to a five-year process. The Board also authorized the establishment of a Standards Improvement Task Force, to begin review and recommend any needed revisions to the Standards. This group initially met in July 2006.
On December 12, 2006 the U.S. Secretary of Education continued recognition of the CCE Commission on Accreditation for a period of five (5) years.
In March 2009, CCE received continued recognition by the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) with the next recognition review in 2013-2014.
In March 2009, the Board of Directors of The Council on Chiropractic Education (CCE) voted to change the organizational structure and makeup of The Council on Chiropractic Education. The Board of Directors (BOD) and the Commission on Accreditation (COA) were combined into one body, hereinafter referred to as the Council. The Council shall constitute the policy and decision-making body, and shall be responsible for all matters pertaining to the accreditation of DCPs, institutions housing DCPs, or solitary purpose chiropractic institutions. Individuals who serve on the Council shall be known as Councilors.
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